* Refer also to the General Starters Technical Documents.
- With WinDriver I don’t have to program inthe kernel mode.So I’m not really creating a driver, am I?
- Why should I buy WinDriver and not developa device driver on my own?
- Must I have experience in device driver orkernel programming?
- I installed WinDriver on a Windows PCabout 40 days ago and forgot about it. Now, when I try to evaluate it Iget a message notifying me that the evaluation period expired.Uninstalling and reinstalling the software does not help.
- I need a driver for a Microsoft SideWinder with USB port. Can you provide me with a driver for it?
- How do I uninstall WinDriver from mycomputer?
* Refer also to the Licensing and Distribution Technical Documents.
- How do I get technical support andmaintenance after 2 months?
- How many copies of my driver can Idistribute, after developing it with WinDriver? Must I payroyalties?
- After registering my evaluation versionof WinDriver, my WinDriver application (which worked with theevaluation version) does not work unless I first run the DriverWizard.Once I reboot the PC, the program stops working again, until I startthe DriverWizard. This is also true for the WinDriver sample programs.What is wrong?
- I developed a driver with WinDriver,but it only runs on the development machine that I used to create thedriver. How can I distribute the driver to other machines?
* Refer also to the WinDriver Technical Documents.
- What is the Debug Monitor utility and howdo I use it?
- My application hangs the system, so Icannot see the debug information in the Debug Monitor log. Is there away to save the debug information in case of a systemhang/crash?
- I need to define more than 20 ‘hardwareitems’ (I/O, memory and interrupts) for my ISA card. Therefore, Iincreased the value ofWD_CARD_ITEMSin thewindrvr.hheader file (due to the definition of theItemmember of theWD_CARDstructure as an array ofWD_CARD_ITEMS WD_ITEMSstructures). But nowWD_CardRegister()will not work.Why?
- I installed the registered version ofWinDriver. Now my sample programs, which are supplied by Jungo (PCI BusDiagnostics, Parallel Port Sample, etc.), do not work. What is theproblem?
- MyWD_Transfer()memory transferroutines are too slow. Can I speed them up?
- I have installed my driver on a targetmachine and there are some problems that don’t occur on my developmentmachine. Can I run the Debug Monitor utility on a target machine aswell, or only on the development machine?
* Refer also to the Kernel PlugIn Technical Documents.
- Is the Kernel PlugIn free? How do I obtaina license to use it?
- Do I need Microsoft’s driver developmentkit to build a Kernel PlugIn project?
- How many interrupts can we expect toservice in one second (typical)?
- Is the driver code always locked intophysical memory?
- How do I allocate locked memory in thekernel, which can be used from within the Kernel PlugIninterrupt routines?
- When handling my interrupts entirely inthe Kernel PlugIn, can I erase the interrupt handler inthe user mode?
- Can I use the Kernel PlugIn feature towrite a SYS Windows driver file?
- How can I print debug statements fromthe Kernel PlugIn that I can view using a kernel debugger,such as WinDbg
- My PC hangs while closing my application.The code fails inWD_IntDisable(). Why is thishappening? I am using the Kernel PlugIn to handleinterrupts.
- When I install my Kernel PlugIn module Iget errors regarding unresolved symbols
- If I write a new function in my SYSKernel PlugIn driver, must it also be declared with__cdecl?
* Refer also to the Windows Technical Documents.
- What is A WDM device driver and doesWinDriver support WDM?
- When installing a WinDriver-based driveron a Windows XP machine, Windows displays this error:The software you are installing for this hardware has not passedWindows Logo Testing … and may impair or destabilize the correctoperation of your system …Is this a problem? How can I avoid such messages?
- Is WinDriver digitally signed by Microsoft?How can I digitally sign my WinDriver-based driver?
- My PCI device is not recognized by the WinDriver PCI applications onWindows. The device is functioning properly and is recognized correctlyon Linux, or using v6.0.2 of WinDriver on Windows.
* Refer also to the Windows CE Technical Documents.
- I am writing a CE NDIS driver. It willtalk to the CE IP stack.I need to access the NIC hardware from my driver. Can I useWinDriver?
- I am writing a serial port to NDISdriver for Windows CE. Can I use WinDriver?
* Refer also to the Linux Technical Documents.
- When I install my Kernel PlugIn moduleon Linux I get errors regarding unresolved symbols.
- I am trying to allocate a kernel bufferon Linux. I can allocate a 100KB buffer, but I cannot allocate 150KB.What should I do?
* Refer also to the CardBus Technical Documents.
- Does WinDriver support a laptop’sCardBus slot using the PCI driver?
* Refer also to the Serial/Parallel Port Technical Documents.
- I am using WinDriver for communicatingperipherals with the parallel port. In case of ECP mode, some computerswork well, but on one computer this does not work.
* Refer also to the Interrupts Technical Documents.
- I am currently seeing 25ms between aninterrupt and activation of our user-mode interrupt handler. Is thisthe performance that I should expect with the handler in theapplication? I am considering moving our interrupt handler to a KernelPlugIn to enable us to handle interrupts faster.
- I used the DriverWizard to generatecode to handle my level sensitive interrupt. AfterWD_IntWait()returns, I read theinterrupt status register but it does not show me that an interrupt hadoccurred. This is a problem if I have multiple cards sharing aninterrupt.
- I tried to use the DriverWizard tolisten to the interrupts of my PCI board, but I got the followingmessage:WARNING!! You did not choose an Access Register for this interrupt.If you do not want to specify a register you will have to manuallychange the code generated by DriverWizard.
- Does WinDriver support Message-SignaledInterrupts (MSI)?
* Refer also to the DMA Technical Documents.
- I am unable to lock a large memory block(more than 1 MB) using
WD_DMALock().The Debug Monitor shows that Scatter/Gather lock failed.
- I have locked a memory buffer for DMAon Windows. Now, when I access this memory directly, using theuser-mode pointer, it seems to be 5 times slower than accessing a”regular” memory buffer, allocated with
A device driver is a software module that controls hardware. In today’s
operating systems, this software module usually resides in the kernel mode
(ring 0). However, WinDriver enables you to write this code in the user mode,
utilizing our lower-level kernel driver(s), and thus frees you from the need
for any driver development knowledge. For a better understanding of the basic
WinDriver architecture, refer to the WinDriver Architecture page on our site.
WinDriver also includes the
feature, which allows you to ‘drop’ sections of your user-mode code into the
kernel mode for better performance and greater flexibility (for
Whether the code you develop resides in the user mode or the kernel mode, it is
still the code driving the hardware, and therefore it is a driver (but you can
call it anything you like …).
Using WinDriver, you gain the following benefits:
- Cost — Save 90% of the development time.
- Reliability — WinDriver has been market tested thoroughly inthousands of applications (see theTestimonialspage formore on this). It has been debugged on almost every platform in themarket. Therefore it not only speeds your development time, but cutsyour debugging time as well.
- Time to market — WinDriver is ready for you today. UsingWinDriver will drastically shorten your development cycle.
- Flexibility — WinDriver supports multiple operating systems, such as Windows 8.1/Server 2012 R2/8/Server 2012/7/Server 2008 R2/Vista/Server 2008/Server 2003/XP, Embedded Windows 8.1/8/7, Windows CE/Mobile, and Linux (depending on the version you are using) — so even if you only need your driver on one platform today, using WinDriver gives you the flexibility of running under anyplatform tomorrow. (Please refer to
Technical Document 4for a list of the supported operating systems for each type of hardware — PCI/ISA/USB).
- Stability — WinDriver keeps you away from the OS kernel. Whileour pre-written kernel module is doing all the transactions with yourhardware, you write your code in the protected application mode. Thisway you get a kernel mode driver (written by our experienceddevelopers), which was tested on practically any OS/platform/BIOScombination available and was found rock stable.
Not at all. With WinDriver, you are coding your device driver in the user mode.
WinDriver already provides you with the lower level kernel mode driver,
which implements the WinDriver API (see the
on our site). You can, therefore, use your favorite development environment to
program and debug your driver, in the user mode, thereby drastically
decreasing your device driver development time.
Recommended development steps:
- Start DriverWizard — WinDriver/wizard/wdwizard(or/Applications/wdwizard.appon Mac OS X — in WinDriverversions that support this OS). On Windows, you can also run theDriverWizard using the shortcut icon on your desktop, or from Windows’Startmenu:Start –> Programs –>WinDriver –> DriverWizard.
- Use the graphical DriverWizard to easily diagnose your hardware,without writing a single line of code. For PCI/ISA — read/writethe hardware resources (memory/IO/registers) and listen tointerrupts.For USB — transfer data on the pipes, reset the device, etc.
- Select the “Generate Code” option from the toolbar, or press theNextbutton. Select your target compiler/developmentenvironment, and let the DriverWizard create a skeleton of a devicedriver application for your device. The generated code will includeconvenience structures and functions, which utilize WinDriver’s basicAPI to access the resources detected and defined (by you) for yourhardware.You can use the DriverWizard to generate code in C, C#, or Visual Basic .NET (VB.NET) (USB only); earlier versions (until v11.2.0) also
supported code generation in Delphi (Pascal) or Visual Basic (VB 6.0).
The DriverWizard will also create makefiles and the relevant build environment for leading 32-bit and 64-bit compilers — such as MS Visual Studio, GCC, or Windows GCC (MinGW/Cygwin).
You can also use one of the WinDriver samples as the basis for your development. Specific samples for enhanced-support hardware can be found under the relevant directory for that hardware, such as PLX or Altera; see the
WinDriver User's Manualsfor your WinDriver version for more information regarding WinDriver’s enhanced support for specific PCI and
USB chip sets.General samples, in C, can be found in the WinDriver/samples directory.
.NET samples are found in the WinDriver/csharp.net (C#) and WinDriver/vb.net (VB.NET) directories (beginning with v7.0.0 of WinDriver).
- Use the manual and help files to modify the generated diagnostics codeand add the specific functionality that you need (if any), inaccordance with your hardware’s specification.The WinDriver user’s manuals and help files are found in theWinDriver/docsdirectory and can also be accessedvia Windows’ Startmenu (for Windows users). All documents arealso available online from the page.
- Compile and build your code (from the user mode!) using any32-bit or64-bit compiler.
Yes. Jungo provides full-featured evaluation versions of the WinDriver tool-kit.
The trial versions can be downloaded from the
Downloads page on our site. The
limitations of each evaluation version (as compared with the registered version)
are outlined in the WinDriver User’s Manual and in
Yes. All versions of WinDriver are backwards compatible, except for rare
occasions documented in the
In most cases, code compiled with an earlier WinDriver version will work,
without recompilation, after replacing the driver file with that from a newer
version; on Windows you may also need to replace the device’s INF file with one
from the newer version.
One exception is when upgrading from version 5.2.2 and below to version 6.0.0
and above: In version 6.0.0 we renamed the WinDriver kernel module from
windrvr to windrvr6, therefore upgrading to a
version that uses the new driver requires rebuilding the code with the header
files from the new version (see
Technical Document #116); the
old API will still be supported, for backwards compatibility, after rebuilding
It is recommended, however, to always use the newest API, to fully utilize the
improvements introduced in newer versions.
Kernel PlugIn is not
backwards compatible. Therefore, when upgrading to a newer version of
WinDriver, you must also rebuild yourKernel PlugIn driver (if you have created such a driver) using the new version.
First, review the support resources available on the
you cannot find an answer to your problem, use our
to report a problem or get any type of product support.
To ensure a quick and effective response, be sure to specify all relevant
information, as outlined in the support center and below.
You can also contact us
by telephone. If you
call outside our office hours, or if all support personnel are occupied, leave
your full contact details (name, company name, email and phone numbers) and we
will be sure to contact you shortly.
When reporting a problem, please include a clear description of all the steps
you performed, and specify which step failed and what was the exact nature of
the failure or erroneous behavior that you encountered (including complete
Please check specifically that you have included the following
- In general, please indicate
- Your operating system. For example: Windows 8 64-bit; Windows XP SP3; Windows Embedded Compact 7, Windows CE v7.0; RedHat Linux 7.2, Linux kernel version 2.6.32-5-686.
- Your WinDriver version. For example: WinDriver version 11.7.0.
- The entire output of the Debug Monitorutility: Run the Debug Monitor, set the debug level to ‘Trace’,reproduce your problem and attach the output from the DebugMonitor window (including the version information at the top).
- For licensing problems: In addition to the Debug Monitor log,please be sure to specify your full license registration string,which you received when purchasing the software, and your developmentcomputer’s registration code. You can view the licenseregistration string and the PC registration code from theDriverWizard’s Licensing Informationwindow(File –> Registration Options).
- For PCI related problems: In addition to the Debug Monitor log,please also attach the entire output of thepci_dumputility(found in the WinDriver/utildirectory), and be be sure tospecify your card’s vendor ID and device ID as well.
- For installation related problems, in addition to the Debug Monitor output, be sure to specify the exact installation steps that you performed (which files were copied to which directories; usage ofthe wdreg installation utility; installation of INF files; etc.) and the result of each step, and attach a copy of the exact error message that you received (if any). On Plug-and-Play Windows platforms (Windows 98 and higher, not including Windows NT 4.0), please also attach a copy of the device INF file that was used in the installation (if any), and a copy of the %WINDIR%setupapi.log file from the PC on which the problem occurred.
Please contact email@example.com to request an extension
of the evaluation period. Please also refer to the
and to Technical Document #9
for a description of the evaluation limits of the different WinDriver kits.
Jungo provides tool kits for writing device drivers. We do not provide
ready-made drivers for commercial hardware.
To completely remove WinDriver from your computer, follow the instructions
found at the Uninstall Page on
our site. NOTE: The online uninstallation instructions are for the latest
WinDriver version. If you are using an older version, follow the uninstallation
instructions in the WinDriver User’s Manual for your specific version.
Simply order the product from our online store. Alternatively, download a
text order form, and email it to
firstname.lastname@example.org, or Fax it
to “Jungo — Connectivity Software Department” (see the
contact details on our site).
Your registered license will include the registered WinDriver version, official
documentation and 2 months of free product upgrades and technical day support.
To get technical support or be eligible for version upgrades after the
expiration of the complimentary two months support and maintenance period, you
must subscribe to the WinDriver annual Upgrade & Support plan.
You can subscribe to this plan from the online store.
For more information regarding the support & maintenance plan, refer to the
Support Purchase page.
The prices of the support plans are derived from the prices of the original
licenses. As you will be able to see, it is much cheaper to subscribe to the
upgrade and support plan during the period of a current valid upgrade &
support subscription (including the 2 months complimentary upgrade &
support period). Once you subscribe to this plan, use Jungo’s
to contact our support team at any time. Please also refer to
the following FAQ to find out how to report a problem effectively:
After purchasing the license from Jungo, you own your driver. The license is
issued for the development stage. The executable/DLL that you create is yours
to distribute freely, in as many copies as you wish. No royalties are to
be paid to Jungo. The only exception to this is if you have created a driver
development kit with WinDriver. For this reason you cannot distribute the
WinDriver header files or your license registration string, thereby enabling
others to develop a driver with WinDriver. For more information, take a look at
the Distributing Your Driver — Legal Issues Appendix in the
When using a registered version of WinDriver, you must register your specific
license registration string from the code.
The generated DriverWizard code for the registered tool-kit will already
include the relevant code for registering your license (provided you have
activated your license from the wizard before generating the code). However,
if you used the DriverWizard to generate the code during the evaluation
period, or if you are using one of the WinDriver samples, you will need to add
the registration code yourself.
Note that after the initial registration of the license from the DriverWizard,
your license string will automatically be activated with every session of the
wizard. This is the reason that you have found that your code seems to work
if you first run DriverWizard (since the license was already registered from
the wizard, even though it was not explicitly registered from the code).
Please refer to the description of
WDU_Init() (USB) /
WDC_DriverOpen() (PCI/ISA) in the
WinDriver User’s Manuals to learn how to correctly register your license registration
string from the code.
If your codes uses the low-level
WD_xxx APIs instead of the WDU or
WDC APIs, use the function
WD_License() to register your license
string. WD_License() is described in the
v8.0.0 and above of WinDriver. In earlier versions the function is described
in the WinDriver User’s Manual, which is found under the
WinDriver/docs/ directory for the specific version. (If you
are using version 5.0.5b or earlier of WinDriver, you can refer to the
WinDriver/redist/register/register.txt file for relevant
Beginning with version 5.2.0 of WinDriver, the generated DriverWizard evaluation
code already includes the required license registration code, but using a demo
license string. When moving to a registered version you simply need to replace
the demo license string that is used in the call to
WD_License() in the evaluation
code with your specific license registration string.
NOTE: Make sure that your code calls the license registration function before
any other WinDriver API call (apart from
WD_Version(), when using the low-level WD_xxx APIs).
When installing WinDriver, the only thing that will be locked to one machine is
the development environment — i.e., the DriverWizard (unless you are using a
floating WinDriver license, which enables you to use the DriverWizard on any
PC). Once you have written and built your code, you may install and run it on
any machine you want. The device driver you create using WinDriver is yours to
distribute in as many copies as you wish, royalties free, provided you do not
distribute your own driver development kit (see the following FAQ:
To find out how to distribute the driver you developed with WinDriver, please
review the driver distribution chapter in your WinDriver User’s Manual, and the
distribution technical documents for your WinDriver version in the
Licensing And Distributionsection of the WinDriver
Technical Documents. Please note that before distributing your driver
you must register your license registration string from the code, as explained
in the manual and in the following FAQs:
The Debug Monitor (a.k.a. Monitor Debug Messages, in older WinDriver
versions) is an application program that logs detailed debugging information
from the WinDriver kernel driver(s). This application is available in two
versions: wddebug_gui — a fully graphical version; and
wddebug — a console-mode version, which also supports GUI
execution on Windows CE platforms (beginning with v10.0.1 of WinDriver).
Both versions of the Debug Monitor can be found at WinDriver/util; (on
Mac OS X, in WinDriver versions that support it, the GUI version can be found
in the OS’s /Applications folder).
For detailed information on this utility and how to use it, refer to the
to the following Technical Documents:
#12 (wddebug_gui for
Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and Solaris),
#13 (wddebug for
Windows, Windows CE (including Windows Mobile), Mac OS X, Linux, and Solaris),
and #14 (wddebug for
VxWorks — last supported in WinDriver v5.2.2).
For information regarding redirecting debug information from the Debug Monitor
to a kernel debugger, refer to
NOTE: The Debug Monitor can also be run on target platforms on which only on
the WinDriver driver(s), and not the entire WinDriver tool-kit, have been
installed. This can be useful, for example, for debugging problems on your
customers’ platforms, as explained in the following FAQ:
Yes. You can select to send the debug information from the
Debug Monitor to a kernel debugger, as
On Windows, in order to save the debug information in case of a
hang/crash, you will need to install the kernel debugger on another PC and
establish a debug session between this PC and your development PC. For more
information on what to do in case of a crash on Windows, refer to
On Linux you will find the debug log, after reboot, in
YES! The code of the device driver you write runs in normal Win32 user mode.
Therefore, you can compile and debug your code using MS Visual Studio /
Please refer to Technical Document #19 for more information regarding debugging
your driver code with WinDriver.
WD_CARD structure as an array of
WD_CARD_ITEMS WD_ITEMS structures). But
now WD_CardRegister() will not work.
If you need to define more than
WD_CARD_ITEMS items for your card
(currently 20 items, according to the definition of
WD_CARD_ITEMS in windrvr.h), do
not modify the value of WD_CARD_ITEMS in
the code, but instead, simply call
WD_CardRegister() several times from your
code, with different items each time. (It is not mandatory to lock all the
resources on a specific card with a single
WD_CardRegister() call.) Alternatively,
consider grouping several memory/IO address ranges into a single BAR
definition, so that the overall resources item count does not exceed the
default 20 items limit.
Please do not change anything in windrvr.h. The affect will
certainly not be what you expect and it could be potentially disastrous.
The sample programs were written with the evaluation version in mind (so that
they can be distributed and used without a license during the evaluation
period). You can modify their source code in order to register your license
registration string from the code — as explained in the following FAQ:
You can replace the calls to WD_Transfer() with direct memory access, by utilizing the
virtual user mode mapping of the base physical address for the relevant memory
range, which is returned by WD_CardRegister() in:
(where ‘i’ is the index number of the memory base address in the WD_ITEMS ‘Item‘ array).
This is documented in the
(see the description of WD_CardRegister()
in the “Function Reference” chapter and the “Improving Performance” chapter)
and in Technical Documents #74
and #17. Technical document
#17 also includes other
suggestions on how you might improve your driver’s performance with WinDriver.
WinDriver’s Debug Monitor utility can run on any machine (unlike the WinDriver
DriverWizard utility, which is locked down to the development machine).
Therefore, you can simply copy the wddebug_gui or wddebug program
file from the development machine (from WinDriver/util or from
/Applications on Mac OS X — in WinDriver versions that support
this OS), to a target machine on which the WinDriver driver(s) have been
installed, and run the Debug Monitor on the target. For detailed information
regarding the Debug Monitor utility, refer to the
and to the Debug Monitor FAQ.
The Kernel PlugIn is an integral part of the WinDriver PCI/ISA tool-kit.
No additional license or payment is required in order to use it.
If you are using Kernel PlugIn to develop a Windows SYS driver, you need to
install Microsoft’s Windows Driver Kit (WDK), or the earlier Driver Development
Kit (DDK) — depending on your target OS and WinDriver version — in
order to successfully build your Kernel PlugIn driver.
For information regarding acquiring the WDK, refer to:
[Note that when using the WDK/DDK to build your
Kernel PlugIn driver, you will also need to set the
DDKROOT environment variable to the
location of your DDK library, as explained in the
Development of VxD Kernel PlugIn drivers, which was supported for Windows 98/Me
in earlier versions of WinDriver (v6.0x-), does not require you to install
Microsoft’s WDK/DDK in order to successfully build the driver, unless you
choose to add your own DDK function calls to your Kernel PlugIn
application. (Note that using OS-specific DDK functions can damage the driver’s
Using WinDriver’s Kernel PlugIn feature, you can expect to handle more than
100,000 interrupts per second, without missing any of them.
For sample Kernel PlugIn interrupt handling code, use the DriverWizard to
generate code for your device (for PCI and PCMCIA devices, define the data for
clearing the interrupt in the wizard before generating the code), or take a
look at the WinDriver Kernel PlugIn sample code —
KP_PCI (WinDriver/samples/pci_diag/kp_pci — v7.0.0+) or
KPTEST (WinDriver/kerplug/kptest/kermode — v6.2.3-a).
In the user mode you can handle around 5,000-10,000 interrupts per second, but
since Windows is not a Real Time OS, you might miss some of the interrupts once
in a while (although WinDriver tells you when you have missed an interrupt and
how many interrupts were missed).
For an explanation regarding interrupt latency with WinDriver, refer to
WinDriver implements malloc() and
free() for kernel mode memory allocation
(see Technical Document #34).
Since the allocated memory is locked, you can also use this memory in your
Kernel PlugIn interrupt routines.
You can also share a memory buffer between the user mode and
Kernel PlugIn applications — as explained in
Yes — You can erase the user mode interrupt handler routine.
You can also implement some of the interrupt handling in the
Kernel PlugIn and some of it in the user mode. The return value of
KP_IntAtDpc() (which is called when the
high-priority KP_IntIrql() routine
returns TRUE) determines the number of
times that the user mode interrupt handler routine will be executed (if at all).
Kernel PlugIn enables you to create an add-on *.sys/.kext/.o/.ko kernel
driver — depending on your OS — to extend the features of WinDriver
for your needs. The Kernel PlugIn driver your create is not
standalone — it can only work together with a user-mode driver that
Note that when using WinDriver’s Kernel PlugInfeature, you must
also install the WinDriver kernel module — windrvr6.sys/.dll/.o/.ko or WinDriver.kext,
depending on the OS and the WinDriver version.
You can use WinDriver’s WD_DebugAdd() API
(available from v5.0.3 and above) to print debug messages from your Kernel
PlugIn or user mode code to the Debug Monitor
utility, and then view the messages in the Debug Monitor log.
WD_DebugAdd() can be called from within
any user-mode or Kernel PlugIn function, including
You can also select to send the debug information from WinDriver’s Debug
Monitor to a kernel debugger, as explained in
In addition, you can add calls in your Kernel PlugIncode to OS
kernel functions that print directly to the kernel debugger — such as
KdPrint() on Windows
printk() on Linux.
This might happen if you are enabling the interrupt from your
Kernel PlugIn interrupt routines, and simultaneously disabling it
from the user mode (using WD_IntDisable()
or InterruptEnable() /
WDC_IntEnable() — which call
WD_IntDisable()). Since the interrupt is
active (having been enabled from the Kernel PlugIn), the interrupt
cannot be disabled and the PC hangs waiting for
WD_IntDisable() to return.
A possible solution, is to call WD_IntDisable()/InterruptEnable()/WDC_IntEnable() as an
atomic operation, so that it will disable the interrupts successfully before
theKernel PlugIn interrupt routine enables the interrupt.
Please refer to http://www.jungo.com/st/support/windriver/windriver_faqs/#kplinux under the
Linux Issues section for the
answer to this question.
No. Only the callbacks used by WinDriver need to be declared as
When writing device drivers, developers must write a separate device driver for the Win 9x and the Win NTx kernels. Microsoft has developed a cross-platform operating system support for input devices, in order to provide a uniform way for code to access such devices across Plug-and-Play Windows platforms (not including Windows NT 4.0). This new support is known as Windows Driver Model or “WDM”. WDM is based on the original Windows NT driver model, with modifications to support Plug-and-Play and power management, and is used for most multimedia device types and many other newer device types, such as USB and 1394 devices.
Beginning with version 5.2.0 of WinDriver, WinDriver’s kernel module — (windrvr6.sys / windrvr.sys in v5.2.2-) — which implements WinDriver’s API, is a full WDM driver.
Is this a problem? How can I avoid such messages?
This message is not actually an error message and is not an indication of
any problem in the installation process or with the driver. This message is
issued by Microsoft’s Windows XP to indicate that the driver was not tested
and digitally signed by Microsoft’s Windows Hardware Quality Labs (WHQL).
To avoid this message you can contact Microsoft in order to get your driver
digitally signed. For more information
WinDriver is fully WHQL-compliant. The driver you develop with WinDriver
for Windows can be submitted to Microsoft’s Windows Hardware Quality Labs (WHQL)
testing in order to digitally sign the driver with Microsoft. Several WinDriver
customers have already successfully signed their WinDriver-based drivers with
For more information on Microsoft’s WHQL testing and how to get a WHQL
certification for your hardware and WinDriver-based driver, refer to to the
“WHQL Certification” section in the
to Microsoft’s documentation, for example:
For further assistance, contact us via our
(or the Non-Secured Support Center).
PciCfgRwCompat registry key flag in the WinDriver driver
INF file (v10.3.1 and higher) to 1 to enable the legacy PCI configuration
space read/write method, as explained in Technical Document #2.
Yes — the Debug Monitor utility is also
available on Windows CE (including Windows Mobile). For more information, refer to Technical Document #13.
Yes. In Windows CE, device drivers, including NDIS drivers, are DLLs. So a
NDIS network driver can use the WinDriver CE API to talk to the hardware.
Yes. In Windows CE, device drivers, including NDIS drivers, are DLLs. So a
NDIS network driver can use the WinDriver CE API to talk to the hardware.
Make sure to install the WinDriver kernel module — windrvr6.o/.ko
(or windrvr.o — in v5.2.2 or below) —
before installing your Kernel PlugIn module, since the
Kernel PlugIn driver depends on the WinDriver driver module for
For detailed Kernel PlugIn installation
instructions, refer to the
your WinDriver version and to
This is a limitation in Linux kernels — by default you can allocate a maximum
of 128KB for kernel buffer allocation. However, it is possible to recompile
the kernel to get larger sizes and there is also a path that enables this
— as explained in
Yes. You can use the WinDriver PCI tool-kit and API to develop a
CardBus driver, as explained in
Note that on Plug-and-Play (PnP) Windows operating systems, you need to
generate and install an INF file for your device in order to successfully
handle it with WinDriver (you can use the DriverWizard to generate the INF
file, as explained in the WinDriver documentation). The INF file will register
your device to work with WinDriver’s kernel driver (windrvr6.sys or
windrvr.sys — in v5.2.x /
wdpnp.sys/wdusb.sys — in previous versions).
This might be a hardware problem, due to BIOS-specific implementations of
parallel port modes on various computers. WinDriver cannot control this
behavior, since it is programmed into the BIOS. We advise you to follow the
brand of computer or BIOS that you have observed works correctly.
The user-mode interrupts handler can service up to 10,000 interrupts per second
(although we cannot commit to a specific number, since this is dependent upon
many factors). A latency of approximately 25ms should generally not happen, but
it can from time to time. Using WinDriver’s
Kernel PlugIn feature will
ensure that this will not happen. However, nothing can protect against some
badly written device drivers that sometimes disable interrupts for long
periods. Such offending drivers should be identified and upgraded or removed.
For more information regarding WinDriver’s interrupt latency, refer to
When a PCI interrupt occurs, WinDriver writes/reads the interrupt status
register in order to clear (acknowledge) the level sensitive interrupt. This
is performed directly in the kernel, according to the information that was set
up in the code, beforehand, when enabling the interrupt. To read and save
the value of the interrupt register before the interrupt is cleared,
so that you can later reference this value from within your interrupt handler
routine, you need to set up a relevant read command in the interrupt transfer
commands that are set up in the dwCmd
field of the WD_INTERRUPT structure,
which is passed to InterruptEnable()
(/InterruptThreadEnable() in earlier
versions)/WD_IntEnable(), and set the
INTERRUPT_CMD_COPY flag in the
dwOptions field of the
(int.dwOptions |= INTERRUPT_CMD_COPY).
This is documented in the “Interrupt Handling” section of the
in Technical Documents #104
code generated by DriverWizard.
PCI uses level sensitive interrupts, which must be acknowledged and cleared
in the kernel immediately when they are received. Therefore, WinDriver
requires you to define an interrupt status register, which should be
read/written in order to clear the interrupt. This is a precautionary
feature, because a level sensitive interrupt that is not acknowledged can
hang your PC. Please refer to
Technical Document #105 for a
detailed explanation on how to listen to PCI interrupts with WinDriver’s
DriverWizard. Please also refer to
Technical Document #75 and to
for a general explanation regarding the handling of PCI interrupts with
NOTE that as specified in the WinDriver documentation, in order to
handle PCI interrupts correctly with WinDriver on Plug-and-Play (PnP) Windows
operating systems, you must first install an INF file for the device, which
registers it to work with WinDriver’s PnP driver (windrvr6.sys in the
latest WinDriver versions; in previous versions —
windrvr.sys/wdpnp.sys/wdusb.sys, depending on the
Yes. Beginning with version 9.1.0 WinDriver supports Message Signaled-Interrupts
(MSI) and Enhanced Message-Signaled Interrupts (MSI-X) on Windows
Vista and higher and Linux.
Support for additional operating systems will be added in future versions of
NOTE: Support for MSI/MSI-X on Windows is provided only on Windows Vista and
higher, because earlier versions of Windows do not support these types of
For more information on WinDriver’s MSI/MSI-X support, refer to the
WD_DMALock(). The Debug Monitor shows that Scatter/Gather lockfailed.
To lock a large DMA buffer (more than 1MB) for Scatter/Gather (S/G) DMA
(i.e., when the
KERNEL_BUFFER_ALLOC DMA options flag is not
WD_DMALock() function, perform the following steps.
WDC_DMASGBufLock()function(available beginning with version 7.0.0 of WinDriver), you do not need toperform similar configurations to lock a large DMA buffer; the function already
handles this for you. The following steps are required only when using
- Set the
DMA_LARGE_BUFFERflag in the
dwOptionsfield of the
WD_DMAstructure whoseaddress is passed as the
WD_DMAstructure”).(Note: This flag is required only when performing Scatter/Gather DMA,as opposed to Contiguous Buffer DMA.)
- Calculate the number of pages you need to lock, in the followingmanner, and assign it to the
dwPagesfield of the
WD_DMAstructure:dwPagesNeeded = transferCount / 4096 + 2;where
transferCountis the number of bytes that you wantto lock.
- NOTE: By default, the
WD_DMAstructure can holdinformation of up to 256 pages (=
WD_DMA_PAGES, defined inWinDriver/include/windrvr.h). If you wish tolock more than 256 pages, you need to have enough memory to hold theinformation of all the pages. To allocate memory forthe additional pages’ information, you can do the following:WD_DMA *pDma;pDma = (WD_DMA *)malloc(sizeof(WD_DMA) +sizeof(WD_DMA_PAGE)*(dwPagesNeeded – WD_DMA_PAGES));
If the memory allocation still fails (using either
WD_DMALock() in the manner
outlined above), verify that there are sufficient system resources for the
attempted memory allocation (both in the kernel and in the user mode address
space to which the memory is mapped).
On Windows, you may need to increase the size of the non-paged pool (from
which the memory is allocated), as explained in Technical Document #58.
If you still cannot lock the entire buffer, try locking a smaller buffer.
For more information regarding performing DMA with WinDriver, please see the
section regarding “Performing DMA” in the “WinDriver Implementations Issues”
chapter of the WinDriver PCI User’s Manual, and to the description of the
WinDriver DMA APIs in the “Function Reference” chapter of the manual.
“Regular” memory (stack, heap, etc.) is cached by the operating system. When
WD_DMALock(), the data is non-cached, in order to make it
DMA-safe. Therefore, the memory access is slower. Note that this is the correct
behavior for DMA.
When performing Contiguous Buffer DMA, you can set the
DMA_ALLOW_CACHE flag in the
dwOptions paramer of
WDC_DMAContigBufLock, or directly in the
dwOptions field of the
WD_DMA structure that is passed to
WD_DMALock() (when using the low-level WinDriver API), in order to
allocate a cached DMA buffer. When working on Windows x86 and x86_64 platforms,
it is recommended to always set this flag.
DMA_ALLOW_CACHE flag is available beginning with
version 5.2.1 of WinDriver.)
If you have allocated the memory in the user mode and then passed its address
WDC_DMASGBufLock() or to the low-level
function in order to lock a Scatter/Gather DMA buffer, then calling
WD_DMAUnlock() will unlock the memory buffer and it will now
function like other “regular” memory in terms of access speed.